With 18050 Kilometres area, the province of Ardabil is located on
the north-east of Iran . It includes the districts of Ardabil,
Khalkhall, Meshkeen Shahr, Geirmi, Bilasavar and Pars Abad. The
historic and Islamic city of Ardabil is the capital of the
The population of the province in 1996 was 1,168,000 from which
48.8% were registered as urban dwellers while 51.1% were villagers
and the remaining 0.22% were registered as nomad tribes.
four districts of this province are located on the border with the
Republic of Azarbaijan, with a total border line of 282.5
kilometres length . The river Aras and the river Balha consist 159
kilometres of the border length mentioned above. Throughout two
checkpoints, named Aslandooz and Bilasavar, this province ic
connected the Republic of Azarbaijan, while Ardabil-Astara road
via Hayran, connects Ardabil to Rasht, Qazvin and Tehran .
Ardabil province enioys geographical and enviromental diversity.
The district of Ardabil is consisted mainly of mountainous areas,
including the famous mountain of Sabalan. the mountains Talesh and
Bozghoosh which surround this district. Most of this district
heights are above 3000 meters altitude, and the pake of Sabalan’s
hight is 4811 meters, while is located on the north-west of the
district and causes the temperate weather of the area. Generally
speaking, the district of Ardabil is known as one of the coldest
areas of Iran with a very cold weather for 5-8 months a year .
Cold winters and temperate summers characterise the climate of the
Bilasavar District locates in a large plate, and it has a warm
summer and a temperate winter.
Parsabad-Mughan districtis located in a large plate too, and its
weather is temperate to warm. The plate of Mughan is recognized as
one of the most important modern agriculture and animal husbandry
of the country.
Germi District is located between two low-hight mountain chains,
and it is warm in summer and temperate inwinter.
Khalkhall District is a mountainous area, so it has a very cold
weather in winter and a temperate in summer. It is usually covered
with heavy snow and ice for five months a year , which causes the
road Asalem-Khalkhall, in the mountainous area of Talish to be
closed during this period.
Mishkeen Shahr District is located on the western outskirts of the
mountain Sabalan, and it is very cold in winter and mild in
The history of the province of Ardabil is a part of the history of
Azarbaijan. Most Iranian historians believe that the city was
built by Firooz, the Sasanid king (457-489 AC), and the city has a
1500 year history. But even earlier, Ardabil was a very imporant
city from the military and political points of view during the
Achaemenid period, which was a military base on the northern
border of the persian Empire. according to Avesta, the Iranian
profit, Zoroaster was born near the river " Daei Yeat " which is
now named "Aras" , and he had written his book in Sabalan area,
while he began to propagate his religion in the city of Ardabil.
At the time of the moslem Arabs invasion of Iran, (year 22 AH) the
city of Ardabil was the largest in Azarbaijan, which failed to the
Muslims. Between 257-317 AH it was the headquarters of the local
government of Bani Saj who changed their capital from Maragheh to
Ardabil. And the city of Ardabil remained the capital of Azarbijan
until the Moguls attack.
Shah Esmael, the Safavid king began his effort for establishment
of an Iranian united empire, then he settled in Tabriz as his
capital in 906 AH. During the Safavid era, Ardabil became the most
impotant city of Iran from the political and economic points of
view. The Significant location of Ardabil on the main trade road
between Iran and Europe had increased her impotance for trading
silk and other goods between Guilan in Iran and different parts of
The city of Ardabil now is one of the most important cities of the
province and Iran for its manr historical elements, specially the
Safavid family’s shrines, its location near many mineral-warm
spring, and location on the main access road to the Republic of
Azarbijan. These have turned the city a tourism centre, which is
visited by thousands of tourists every year.
Among main historical monument of this city, one can name its old
bridges with their special architecture, its historical places,
significant mosques, shrines, churches and other holy buildings,
all with valuable architecture.The significant architecture of
commercial unites, specially the traditional bazaar are attractive
Furthermore, the natural attraction of the region and the city,
specially Sabalan marvellous outskirts, and the warm mineral
springs of Sareain from an environment suitable for tourists in
spring and summer . Moreover, Infact, environmental diversity of
the province Helped the province to have. province’s beautiful
valleys, attractive forests, wonderful lakes and many beautiful
marshlands, and landscapes. The lakes of Shoorabil and Neor are
well facilitated for tourism and are very attractive areas in
summer, which can be upgraded to be one of the most attractive
tourist areas in international level.
In addition to the tourism attraction of the province, its
significant location on the strategic border area as a neighbor
with the Republic of Azarbaijan, have well facilitated for the
development process of the province and the whole region. the
recent developmant of trade relations and communication between
Iran and the Republic of Azarbaijan have been significant for the
development of tourism and economy of the province of Ardabil,and
more development is expected in the future.
Main historical, cultural and tourist characteristics of cities,
towns and regions of the province are as followings: