Hormozgan

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Hormozgan


Geography and History

Hormozgan province covering an area of 68,476 sq.km. is located in south of Iran and north of Persian Gulf. Hormoz straight, one of the today most sensitive and vital waterways, is situated in political realm of this province. Bandar-Abbas, Bandar-Lengeh, Minaab, Roodan, Qeshm, Jask, Haji-Abad, and Abou-Mousa constitute the townships of this province.
In November 1996, the population of Hormozgan province was estimated 1,062,155 of which 41.8% were resided in urban areas and 57.74% in rural areas and remaining were non-residents. The sex ratio of the population of the province is 106.
The main part of the province is covered by mountainous regions. Zagross mountain range extends from north-east to south-east of the province and terminates to lime and sandy hills and high lands as well as coastal low lands parallel to the Persian Gulf and Omman sea.
Hormozgan province is situated in the warm and dry zone of Iran having arid and semi-arid climate. The weather in coastal line is very hot and humid in summer and very mild in winter. There is scanty rainfall. Relative humidity is mainly very high in the coastal zones of the Persian Gulf.
Hormozgan province is one of important tourism areas, in national and international level, especially for its coastal and water attractions. Being one of the wealth resources of the Persian gulf, pearl is paid due attention by the merchants. Persian gulf, among global seas, is very rich from marine biological diversity point of view especially different species of fishes. Fishery is very brisk in Bandar-Abbas, Bandar-Lengeh, Bandar Jask and around Kish, Hendourabi, Hormoz, Qeshm and Larak islands. The Persian gulf shrimp and lobster have international reputation.
Enjoying suitable coasts, mineral waters, countryside, sea, tropical nature, shining wild nenuphars, fish markets, covered water reservoirs, old high badgirs (ventilation towers), large jetties, traditional architecture proportionate to climatological conditions, vast luxuriant palm groves, diverse tropical plants and , Hormozgan has its own freshness and attractiveness which absorbs tourists.
The history of Hormozgan province is mixed with the history and geography of the Persian gulf. Written history of Bandar-e-Hormoz begins since Ardeshir-e-Babakan. Some believe that thriving of Bandar-e-Hormoz has taken place between the years 211-241 AD., and it has become famous as one of the most important trade centers in the East.
In the years 661-750 AD., Persian Gulf Region was a part of Omavi territory and then a part of Abbasi territory (750-1285 AD.)
In the late 8th century, naval business was considerably flourished and some historians know this waterway more important than the silk road and an important part of it.
In the year 1497 AD., for the first time, western colonialists, under the command of "Vasco de Gama" landed in the Persian Gulf ports. In 1506 AD., Portuguese, surrounded Hormoz island under the pretext of protection of Portugal interests against Egyptian and Venetian merchants. At that time, Bandar-e-Hormoz was counted as a key point of Persian Gulf trade and the spice road passed adjacent to this port in Hormoz straight. Shah Esmail Safavi intended to taking it bach, but due to the trouble of fighting with Ottomans, he could not dismiss Portuguese and concluded a treaty with them. With conclusion of this treaty, the dominance of Portuguese on the Persian gulf stabilized for some times. Shah Abbas I, with the help of England, expelled them. In the year 1635 AD., the Dutch established a commercial firm in Bandar Abbas and competition between England and the Netherlands accelerated. In the late reign of Safavid king, Iranian government canceled exemption of custom duties for Dutch import and export. Iranian government authorized them to trade on silk in every point of Iran. At the same time, the Dutch constructed a firm castle in Bandar-Abbas.
Mir Mohanna, the Governor of Khark island and Bandar-Rig, under the pretext of not paying rental fees, attached them in 1765 AD. and expelled them from the Persian Gulf. After this event, so many Emirates were established by England in the Persian Gulf in order to preventing any unity against its interests.
After World War I, the Persian Gulf gained a very important strategic and economic condition as a center of petroleum export very essential for world industrial development. Strategic condition of Hormozgan province attracted especial attention of foreign powers to this region.
Although the cities of this province, compared with other cities of Iran, have not a long history, but the political history of this region and its importance is very interesting for every tourist. On the bed of this political history, so many castles and monuments emerged since the dominance of colonialists and each of them has its own attraction for tourists.
The Persian Gulf, from ancient days and due to its antiquity, has been the center of traffic, interactions, integration and linkage among different races, ethnic groups and those sailors who had diverse language, tradition and thought. The old navigators in the Persian Gulf, who had long journeys to India, Africa, Java (Indonesia), China and, brought their tradition to the region. Consequently, the culture and folklore of the people in this region gained specific characteristics compared to other parts of Iran. These differences in cultural interaction, have caused suitable backgrounds for visiting the province and getting acquaintance with the specific culture of the region.
The historical, cultural and tourism features of the province are pointed out as bellow:

 
 
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