Hormozgan province covering an
area of 68,476 sq.km. is located in south of Iran and north of
Persian Gulf. Hormoz straight, one of the today most sensitive
and vital waterways, is situated in political realm of this
province. Bandar-Abbas, Bandar-Lengeh, Minaab, Roodan, Qeshm,
Jask, Haji-Abad, and Abou-Mousa constitute the townships of
In November 1996, the population of Hormozgan province was
estimated 1,062,155 of which 41.8% were resided in urban areas
and 57.74% in rural areas and remaining were non-residents.
The sex ratio of the population of the province is 106.
The main part of the province is covered by mountainous
regions. Zagross mountain range extends from north-east to
south-east of the province and terminates to lime and sandy
hills and high lands as well as coastal low lands parallel to
the Persian Gulf and Omman sea.
Hormozgan province is situated in the warm and dry zone of
Iran having arid and semi-arid climate. The weather in coastal
line is very hot and humid in summer and very mild in winter.
There is scanty rainfall. Relative humidity is mainly very
high in the coastal zones of the Persian Gulf.
Hormozgan province is one of important tourism areas, in
national and international level, especially for its coastal
and water attractions. Being one of the wealth resources of
the Persian gulf, pearl is paid due attention by the
merchants. Persian gulf, among global seas, is very rich from
marine biological diversity point of view especially different
species of fishes. Fishery is very brisk in Bandar-Abbas,
Bandar-Lengeh, Bandar Jask and around Kish, Hendourabi, Hormoz,
Qeshm and Larak islands. The Persian gulf shrimp and lobster
have international reputation.
Enjoying suitable coasts, mineral waters, countryside, sea,
tropical nature, shining wild nenuphars, fish markets, covered
water reservoirs, old high badgirs (ventilation towers), large
jetties, traditional architecture proportionate to
climatological conditions, vast luxuriant palm groves, diverse
tropical plants and , Hormozgan has its own freshness and
attractiveness which absorbs tourists.
The history of Hormozgan province is mixed with the history
and geography of the Persian gulf. Written history of
Bandar-e-Hormoz begins since Ardeshir-e-Babakan. Some believe
that thriving of Bandar-e-Hormoz has taken place between the
years 211-241 AD., and it has become famous as one of the most
important trade centers in the East.
In the years 661-750 AD., Persian Gulf Region was a part of
Omavi territory and then a part of Abbasi territory (750-1285
In the late 8th century, naval business was considerably
flourished and some historians know this waterway more
important than the silk road and an important part of it.
In the year 1497 AD., for the first time, western
colonialists, under the command of "Vasco de Gama" landed in
the Persian Gulf ports. In 1506 AD., Portuguese, surrounded
Hormoz island under the pretext of protection of Portugal
interests against Egyptian and Venetian merchants. At that
time, Bandar-e-Hormoz was counted as a key point of Persian
Gulf trade and the spice road passed adjacent to this port in
Hormoz straight. Shah Esmail Safavi intended to taking it bach,
but due to the trouble of fighting with Ottomans, he could not
dismiss Portuguese and concluded a treaty with them. With
conclusion of this treaty, the dominance of Portuguese on the
Persian gulf stabilized for some times. Shah Abbas I, with the
help of England, expelled them. In the year 1635 AD., the
Dutch established a commercial firm in Bandar Abbas and
competition between England and the Netherlands accelerated.
In the late reign of Safavid king, Iranian government canceled
exemption of custom duties for Dutch import and export.
Iranian government authorized them to trade on silk in every
point of Iran. At the same time, the Dutch constructed a firm
castle in Bandar-Abbas.
Mir Mohanna, the Governor of Khark island and Bandar-Rig,
under the pretext of not paying rental fees, attached them in
1765 AD. and expelled them from the Persian Gulf. After this
event, so many Emirates were established by England in the
Persian Gulf in order to preventing any unity against its
After World War I, the Persian Gulf gained a very important
strategic and economic condition as a center of petroleum
export very essential for world industrial development.
Strategic condition of Hormozgan province attracted especial
attention of foreign powers to this region.
Although the cities of this province, compared with other
cities of Iran, have not a long history, but the political
history of this region and its importance is very interesting
for every tourist. On the bed of this political history, so
many castles and monuments emerged since the dominance of
colonialists and each of them has its own attraction for
The Persian Gulf, from ancient days and due to its antiquity,
has been the center of traffic, interactions, integration and
linkage among different races, ethnic groups and those sailors
who had diverse language, tradition and thought. The old
navigators in the Persian Gulf, who had long journeys to
India, Africa, Java (Indonesia), China and, brought their
tradition to the region. Consequently, the culture and
folklore of the people in this region gained specific
characteristics compared to other parts of Iran. These
differences in cultural interaction, have caused suitable
backgrounds for visiting the province and getting acquaintance
with the specific culture of the region.
The historical, cultural and tourism features of the province
are pointed out as bellow: