TEHRAN

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TEHRAN
Location and Climate

With nearly 11 million inhabitants (one sixth of the country’s total population) in less than 18956 square kilometers, Tehran is the country’s most densely populated province . The district of Tehran is the most populated in the province and in the country, in which the city of Tehran hosts 6, 758, 845 people, and the district of Karaj comes in the second place to accommodate more than a million inhabitants. In 1996 from the total population of the province, 84.15% were urban dwelars and 15.85% were registered as villagers.
The province's geographical includes mountains, plains and valleys with moderate climate in highlands, and semi-desert climate in the plains . The highlands are located to the north of the city of Tehran, and height decreases southward to reach the southern desert. This give the province a remarkable land and climate varieties which provide the province and the city with significant attractions. While you can enjoy a moderate weather and very beautiful landscapes on the northern highlands in summer, it is moderate in winter and visiting many historical sites on the southern parts, such as the remaining of the old civilization in Rey, can be very interesting. Additionally, the southern desert displays some magnificent natural sites for visitors.
The province of Tehran includes 9 districts which are: Tehran, Shemiranat, Rey, Islamshahr, Shahreyar, Karaj, Savejbolagh, Varamin and Damavand. The rivers Karaj, Jajroud, Lar, Roud-i-Shoor, Hableh Roud and Taleqan Roud flow acroos Tehran province. With the dams of Karaj, Latian and Lar, these rivers supply Tehran"s drinking water and parts of the country"s electrical power.
River- sides and dem-lakes provide also valuable tourism sites for visiting and enjoing walking and viewing beautiful natural sites as well as practicing various kinds of sports, including water sports. These are in addition to sport which could be practised in the mountainous areas around Tehran, such as climbing and skiing.
Tehran is an industrial province that hosts a major part of the country"s industries and plays a significant part in its economy. Agriculture is also a prevailing activity in the suburban plains, and highlands of the province. most of the people of this province, a majority of whom are city dwellers, are muslims and speak farse (the persian language). however, religious and ethnic minorities also live in this province, particulary in the city of Tehran , and speak their own language. Owing to the physical proximity of various cities of the province of Tehran , most of the villages and suburban areas are considesed as holiday resorts for the people of Tehran. Among these places are the Karaj Valley, the Karaj dam outskirsts, Shahrestanak, the outskirts of Lar dam. Chitgar. khargoush Darreh. Sorkheh Hessar. latian Ghouchak.
Suhanak, Taleqan, Damavand and many other places.


Tehran and Its History

Tehran, the capital of the Islamic Republic of Iran , is one of the largest metropolitans of the world, and it is the country's largest economic center and the base for its large and small modern technological and industrial establishments. Located on the slopes of the mountains and at the foot of the magnificent Mount damavand,it has been the country’s capital city for only 200 years now.
With an altitude of 1200 meters above sea level, Tehran is a city of all four seasons with hot summers, freezing winters, and brief spring and autumns. The highest recorded summer temperature in Tehran has been 42 degrees centigrade while the lowest has registered at 8 degrees below zero.
The first mention of Tehran in an old geographical text is made in the 10th century Massalek-al (The Ways of States )by Estakhri. Yaqoot Hamavi’s thirteenth century work . It was just a village befor the Safavid era.
Mojam-al Boldan (A Lexicon of Cities) discusses the Village of Tehran in detail. Later, one frequently comes across the name of this village with many farms, gardens and orchards, due to its plenty of water and moderate weather. By the Mongols’ invasion and the consequent servere devastation the city of Ray received, most of the Rey’s people took refuge to this village. This was the start point for the growth of Tehran, and gradually this village that was famous for its fine fruits and beautiful gardens, underwent new developments. Shah Tahmaseb, one of the Safavid Kings, chose Tehran as administrative center for the Safavid dynasty, which resulted in constructing many big governmental buildings, castles and gates. At the time of the zand dynasty, it was a small town that was significant from a military point of view . The first of the Qajar kings, agha Mohammad Khan, named Tehran as the country’s capital in 1789. Nevertheless, the capital’s development started at the time of another Qajar monarch, Fath-Ali Shah . The citadel which Agha Mohammad Khan had built was developed to include the new royal buildings. At the same time , the city’s population was redoubled. With the increasing importance of the city, soon gates, squares and mosques were built and it was at the time of Nassereddin Shah that the city’s master plan was prepared and modern streets were formed . later, was prepared and modern streets were formed . Later , large central squares like toopkhaned (now Imam Khomeini) square and several military buildings were constructed. With the decline of the Qajar dynasty, Tehran soon took the shape of a modern city. The construction of large government buildings, new streets, recreation large government buildings, new streets , recreation centers, urban service establishments, and academic and scientific centers were stated, while most of the old gates and building were destroyed and the city’s old architectural fabric was replaced by a modern one.
After World War II and particularly following the 1950s, Tehran experienced a hasty trend of growth marked by massive immigrations greater demand for housing that led 10 the vertical growth of the city . tall buildings and residential towers changed the face of the city. Meanwhile, satellites developed around Tehran and as a result of the expansion. Tehran’s suburbs and nearby villages became practically parts of the city.
Currently , Tehran is several kilometers long from any side to another. Its central axes like Enqelab, Valiasr and Dr. Shariati Avenues have been extended by several kilometers. Besides, the city transportation routes also include many expressways and highways.
Today’s Tehran has advanced modern hospitals and other medical centers, hundreds of pharmacies, hotels of different categories, restaurants, movie theaters, mosques, churches and synagogues for religious minorities, several banks with hundreds of offices all across the city , 26 museums , 10 cultural centers, 20 public libraries, more than 30 universities and other higher education institutes, an extensive bus service network, bus terminals at the city’s south, east and west, an international airport (Mehrabad), a number of military airports, mini bus and public and private taxi services, several insurance companies, large recreation centers for children, several large gymnasiums, ski slopes, tens of large parks across the city. and all essential types of urban and recreational services.
Such centralization and expansion has led to Tehran’s being divided into 20 municipal districts, with many people commuting between them. The city’s mass media include hundreds of newspapers and magazines, five TV networks and five round the clock radio programs.
Tehran’s indoor grand Bazaar is a network comprised of several kilometers and thousands of shops that are run traditionally. Hundreds of thousands of people visit this huge shopping center everyday. Besides, some of the streets and quarters of Tehran traditionally specialize in offering certain godds. Among these streets are Valiasr and Jomhouri Islami avenues in which most shops specialize in selling clothing, Enqelab avenue, close to the Tehran University, where there are tens of bookshops and stationary dealers; and Rey street where home appliances are sold, Big stores like the Quds chain stores are among the other major shopping centers of Tehran.


The Sights of Tehran

The oldest historical monuments of Tehran date back to the qajar period. Some of them are: the Golestan palace and Museum, the Shamsolemareh Building, the Imam Khomeini Mosque (ex-Shah mosque), parts of the Bazaar, the shrines of Imamzaden Saleh in Tajrish, Imamzadeh Qassem, Imamzadeh Seyed Esmaeill, Imamzadeh Yahya, Imamzadeh Zeid, and Seyed Nassreddin as well as the Bagh-i-Ferdows Building, Sorkheh Hassar palace (Hospital), Firouzeh palace, shahid Motahhari (Sepahsalar) Mosque and School, the builing of ex-National Assembly , the pamenar Minaret, and Marvi School and Bazaar. Some of the famous museums of Tehran are; the National Iranian Museum (ex-Ancient Iran Museum), the Anthropological Museum, Abgineh (Glass) Museum, the Museum of Contemporary Arts, Central Bank’s Treasury Museum, the Fine Arts Museum, Decorative Arts Museum and the Carpet Museum. There are also several large and beautiful parks in Tehran and its suburbs beside the city’s natural parks located in the mountains around the capital.

 

Karaj

The city of Karaj is located 48 kilometers west of Tehran, with a population of more than one million people and an increasing rate of development and population growth.
There are many historical sites in Karaj such as a stony fire-place remained from the Ashkanid and the Sasanid eras called Takhte-Rustam. The Karaj river and valley are among the country’s most beautiful scenery. The Karaj dam supplies a major part of Tehran’s power and water requirements, and its beautiful lake with several sport facilities is a major tourist attraction. Other tourism attractions in Karaj are: Walah spring water, Gila-gila spring water , Bij Ardan water-fall, Dizeen and Khour skiing sites, Yakhmorad and the forest park of Verdavard.

Damavand

 The city of Damavand is located 75 kilometers northeast of Tehran on the slopes of the magnificent Mount Damavand with natural scenery, several orchards and a pleasant climate that makes it a desirable summer resort. many springs of cold and hot mineral water around Damavand have therapeutic qualities. Damavand is a historical city . Its grand Jami’ Mosque which dates back to the 15th century and a number of shrines in the city are all evidences of its historical background.
The most important tourism sites of Damavand are: Tar and Mamj lakes, Lar dam’s lake, Lar and Shekarab waterfall, A’IIa springwater, Ab-Ali skiing site, Golezard cave, the Jami’ Mosque, Imamzadeh Hashim shrine, and Shaykh Shebli shrine.

Varamin

Located 40 kilometers southeast of Tehran, Varamin has been in fact one of the largest and oldest towns of Iran.The grand Jami’ Mosque with its Ilkhan (Mongols) period’s architecture and tile work, as well as the Sultan Aladdin Tower, Imamzadeh Yahya and Iraj Tower, are all indications of Varamin’s historical background. Varamin is a highly fertile plain for agriculture. Its main districts are Pishva and Qarachak.

Wildlife

As far as the environment is concerned, Tehran province has ten protected sites, the oldest ones of which are the two hundred-years-old national parks of khojir and Sorkheh Hessar ; two of the oldest of their kind world over, Characteristic of Tehran Province’s wildlife is the Central Alborz Ram (Ovis Vignei Arkali). The species is a blend of the Armenian and Oreal rams, with black mane and frontwards spiral horns. They live in rough highlands and migrate on seasonal basis.   Their breeding time is late autumn. their delivery due in may, bearing usually a couple of cubs.
The best times for visiting these sites, as for as both scenery and wildlife are concerned, are in the spring and late autumn.


Trip to , and stay in the province

All districts and towns of the province are provided with well connected nets of roads, and traviling facilities, so a trip to these destinations is very easy . All towns of the province aer well facilitated by networks of services such at telecommunication and health services, and all service staff are familiar with tourism regulations as well as local culture. The International Airport of Tehran (Mehrabad) is well facilitated, and many international as well as national flights are held there daily.

 
 
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