Location and Climate
With nearly 11 million inhabitants (one sixth of the country’s total
population) in less than 18956 square kilometers, Tehran is the
country’s most densely populated province . The district of Tehran
is the most populated in the province and in the country, in which
the city of Tehran hosts 6, 758, 845 people, and the district of
Karaj comes in the second place to accommodate more than a million
inhabitants. In 1996 from the total population of the province,
84.15% were urban dwelars and 15.85% were registered as villagers.
The province's geographical includes mountains, plains and valleys
with moderate climate in highlands, and semi-desert climate in the
plains . The highlands are located to the north of the city of
Tehran, and height decreases southward to reach the southern desert.
This give the province a remarkable land and climate varieties which
provide the province and the city with significant attractions.
While you can enjoy a moderate weather and very beautiful
landscapes on the northern highlands in summer, it is moderate in
winter and visiting many historical sites on the southern parts,
such as the remaining of the old civilization in Rey, can be very
interesting. Additionally, the southern desert displays some
magnificent natural sites for visitors.
The province of Tehran includes 9 districts which are: Tehran,
Shemiranat, Rey, Islamshahr, Shahreyar, Karaj, Savejbolagh, Varamin
and Damavand. The rivers Karaj, Jajroud, Lar, Roud-i-Shoor, Hableh
Roud and Taleqan Roud flow acroos Tehran province. With the dams of
Karaj, Latian and Lar, these rivers supply Tehran"s drinking water
and parts of the country"s electrical power.
River- sides and dem-lakes provide also valuable tourism sites for
visiting and enjoing walking and viewing beautiful natural sites as
well as practicing various kinds of sports, including water sports.
These are in addition to sport which could be practised in the
mountainous areas around Tehran, such as climbing and skiing.
Tehran is an industrial province that hosts a major part of the
country"s industries and plays a significant part in its economy.
Agriculture is also a prevailing activity in the suburban plains,
and highlands of the province. most of the people of this province,
a majority of whom are city dwellers, are muslims and speak farse
(the persian language). however, religious and ethnic minorities
also live in this province, particulary in the city of Tehran , and
speak their own language. Owing to the physical proximity of various
cities of the province of Tehran , most of the villages and suburban
areas are considesed as holiday resorts for the people of Tehran.
Among these places are the Karaj Valley, the Karaj dam outskirsts,
Shahrestanak, the outskirts of Lar dam. Chitgar. khargoush Darreh.
Sorkheh Hessar. latian Ghouchak.
Suhanak, Taleqan, Damavand and many other places.
Tehran and Its History
Tehran, the capital
of the Islamic Republic of Iran , is one of the largest
metropolitans of the world, and it is the country's largest economic
center and the base for its large and small modern technological and
industrial establishments. Located on the slopes of the mountains
and at the foot of the magnificent Mount damavand,it has been the
country’s capital city for only 200 years now.
With an altitude of 1200 meters above sea level, Tehran is a city of
all four seasons with hot summers, freezing winters, and brief
spring and autumns. The highest recorded summer temperature in
Tehran has been 42 degrees centigrade while the lowest has
registered at 8 degrees below zero.
The first mention of Tehran in an old geographical text is made in
the 10th century Massalek-al (The Ways of States )by Estakhri.
Yaqoot Hamavi’s thirteenth century work . It was just a village
befor the Safavid era.
Mojam-al Boldan (A Lexicon of Cities) discusses the Village of
Tehran in detail. Later, one frequently comes across the name of
this village with many farms, gardens and orchards, due to its
plenty of water and moderate weather. By the Mongols’ invasion and
the consequent servere devastation the city of Ray received, most of
the Rey’s people took refuge to this village. This was the start
point for the growth of Tehran, and gradually this village that was
famous for its fine fruits and beautiful gardens, underwent new
developments. Shah Tahmaseb, one of the Safavid Kings, chose Tehran
as administrative center for the Safavid dynasty, which resulted in
constructing many big governmental buildings, castles and gates. At
the time of the zand dynasty, it was a small town that was
significant from a military point of view . The first of the Qajar
kings, agha Mohammad Khan, named Tehran as the country’s capital in
1789. Nevertheless, the capital’s development started at the time of
another Qajar monarch, Fath-Ali Shah . The citadel which Agha
Mohammad Khan had built was developed to include the new royal
buildings. At the same time , the city’s population was redoubled.
With the increasing importance of the city, soon gates, squares and
mosques were built and it was at the time of Nassereddin Shah that
the city’s master plan was prepared and modern streets were formed .
later, was prepared and modern streets were formed . Later , large
central squares like toopkhaned (now Imam Khomeini) square and
several military buildings were constructed. With the decline of the
Qajar dynasty, Tehran soon took the shape of a modern city. The
construction of large government buildings, new streets, recreation
large government buildings, new streets , recreation centers, urban
service establishments, and academic and scientific centers were
stated, while most of the old gates and building were destroyed and
the city’s old architectural fabric was replaced by a modern one.
After World War II and particularly following the 1950s, Tehran
experienced a hasty trend of growth marked by massive immigrations
greater demand for housing that led 10 the vertical growth of the
city . tall buildings and residential towers changed the face of the
city. Meanwhile, satellites developed around Tehran and as a result
of the expansion. Tehran’s suburbs and nearby villages became
practically parts of the city.
Currently , Tehran is several kilometers long from any side to
another. Its central axes like Enqelab, Valiasr and Dr. Shariati
Avenues have been extended by several kilometers. Besides, the city
transportation routes also include many expressways and highways.
Today’s Tehran has advanced modern hospitals and other medical
centers, hundreds of pharmacies, hotels of different categories,
restaurants, movie theaters, mosques, churches and synagogues for
religious minorities, several banks with hundreds of offices all
across the city , 26 museums , 10 cultural centers, 20 public
libraries, more than 30 universities and other higher education
institutes, an extensive bus service network, bus terminals at the
city’s south, east and west, an international airport (Mehrabad), a
number of military airports, mini bus and public and private taxi
services, several insurance companies, large recreation centers for
children, several large gymnasiums, ski slopes, tens of large parks
across the city. and all essential types of urban and recreational
Such centralization and expansion has led to Tehran’s being divided
into 20 municipal districts, with many people commuting between
them. The city’s mass media include hundreds of newspapers and
magazines, five TV networks and five round the clock radio programs.
Tehran’s indoor grand Bazaar is a network comprised of several
kilometers and thousands of shops that are run traditionally.
Hundreds of thousands of people visit this huge shopping center
everyday. Besides, some of the streets and quarters of Tehran
traditionally specialize in offering certain godds. Among these
streets are Valiasr and Jomhouri Islami avenues in which most shops
specialize in selling clothing, Enqelab avenue, close to the Tehran
University, where there are tens of bookshops and stationary
dealers; and Rey street where home appliances are sold, Big stores
like the Quds chain stores are among the other major shopping
centers of Tehran.
The Sights of Tehran
historical monuments of Tehran date back to the qajar period. Some
of them are: the Golestan palace and Museum, the Shamsolemareh
Building, the Imam Khomeini Mosque (ex-Shah mosque), parts of the
Bazaar, the shrines of Imamzaden Saleh in Tajrish, Imamzadeh Qassem,
Imamzadeh Seyed Esmaeill, Imamzadeh Yahya, Imamzadeh Zeid, and Seyed
Nassreddin as well as the Bagh-i-Ferdows Building, Sorkheh Hassar
palace (Hospital), Firouzeh palace, shahid Motahhari (Sepahsalar)
Mosque and School, the builing of ex-National Assembly , the pamenar
Minaret, and Marvi School and Bazaar. Some of the famous museums of
Tehran are; the National Iranian Museum (ex-Ancient Iran Museum),
the Anthropological Museum, Abgineh (Glass) Museum, the Museum of
Contemporary Arts, Central Bank’s Treasury Museum, the Fine Arts
Museum, Decorative Arts Museum and the Carpet Museum. There are also
several large and beautiful parks in Tehran and its suburbs beside
the city’s natural parks located in the mountains around the
The city of Karaj
is located 48 kilometers west of Tehran, with a population of more
than one million people and an increasing rate of development and
There are many historical sites in Karaj such as a stony fire-place
remained from the Ashkanid and the Sasanid eras called Takhte-Rustam.
The Karaj river and valley are among the country’s most beautiful
scenery. The Karaj dam supplies a major part of Tehran’s power and
water requirements, and its beautiful lake with several sport
facilities is a major tourist attraction. Other tourism attractions
in Karaj are: Walah spring water, Gila-gila spring water , Bij Ardan
water-fall, Dizeen and Khour skiing sites, Yakhmorad and the forest
park of Verdavard.
The city of
Damavand is located 75 kilometers northeast of Tehran on the slopes
of the magnificent Mount Damavand with natural scenery, several
orchards and a pleasant climate that makes it a desirable summer
resort. many springs of cold and hot mineral water around Damavand
have therapeutic qualities. Damavand is a historical city . Its
grand Jami’ Mosque which dates back to the 15th century and a number
of shrines in the city are all evidences of its historical
The most important tourism sites of Damavand are: Tar and Mamj
lakes, Lar dam’s lake, Lar and Shekarab waterfall, A’IIa springwater,
Ab-Ali skiing site, Golezard cave, the Jami’ Mosque, Imamzadeh
Hashim shrine, and Shaykh Shebli shrine.
kilometers southeast of Tehran, Varamin has been in fact one of the
largest and oldest towns of Iran.The grand Jami’ Mosque with its
Ilkhan (Mongols) period’s architecture and tile work, as well as the
Sultan Aladdin Tower, Imamzadeh Yahya and Iraj Tower, are all
indications of Varamin’s historical background. Varamin is a highly
fertile plain for agriculture. Its main districts are Pishva and
As far as the
environment is concerned, Tehran province has ten protected sites,
the oldest ones of which are the two hundred-years-old national
parks of khojir and Sorkheh Hessar ; two of the oldest of their kind
world over, Characteristic of Tehran Province’s wildlife is the
Central Alborz Ram (Ovis Vignei Arkali). The species is a blend of
the Armenian and Oreal rams, with black mane and frontwards spiral
horns. They live in rough highlands and migrate on seasonal basis.
Their breeding time is late autumn. their delivery due in may,
bearing usually a couple of cubs.
The best times for visiting these sites, as for as both scenery and
wildlife are concerned, are in the spring and late autumn.
Trip to , and
stay in the province
All districts and
towns of the province are provided with well connected nets of
roads, and traviling facilities, so a trip to these destinations is
very easy . All towns of the province aer well facilitated by
networks of services such at telecommunication and health services,
and all service staff are familiar with tourism regulations as well
as local culture. The International Airport of Tehran (Mehrabad) is
well facilitated, and many international as well as national flights
are held there daily.